Job analysis is the process of assembling activities into specific job descriptions and describing how each job relates to other jobs within an organization. It also involves the determination of the qualifications needed to succeed in a job, as well as the work environment in which the job is performed. It is essential to conduct a proper job analysis, or else the wrong person could be hired into a job, or the pay associated with the position will be incorrect.
A significant concept that is considered infrequently is clustering together work that matches a certain type of personality. If the bulk of a job involves detailed work, the ideal person for the job is likely to be an introverted, detail-oriented person. If so, one should remove from the description other tasks that such a person might find jarring, such as giving presentations to management. Conversely, if a job description is customer-focused, keep detail-level clerical tasks out of the job description. For example, minimize the amount of report writing that a salesperson is required to complete. By paying attention to this important detail, employees are more likely to fit into their assigned positions.
Once a job analysis has been constructed for a position, the result should include the following information:
Purpose. This is the overriding reason for the position.
Reporting relationships. Notes any positions reporting to this job, as well as the position to which this job reports.
Responsibilities. The specific tasks assigned to this job.
Work environment. The surroundings in which the job is to be performed.
Requirements. The knowledge level, skills, and capabilities required of a person in order to adequately fulfill the responsibilities of the job. This may include a certain type of college degree, years of experience, use of certain software, language skills, and so forth. Also note any physical demands on someone working in this position.
Performance criteria. The criteria on which a person holding the position will be judged.